Purpose: Ovarian serous carcinoma is an aggressive cancer that often presents with metastatic disease. Although primary tumor and established metastatic foci in the omentum are generally compared to identify proteins involved in drug resistance, we investigated a potential bridge, the malignant cells from ascites, as facilitator of drug resistance and recurrence. Methods: We evaluated the expression of drug resistance markers P-glycoprotein (P-gp), canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (MRP2), and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) in malignant cells from ascites and matched omental metastasis from 25 patients with advanced-stage ovarian serous carcinoma who were chemotherapeutic naïve and undergoing initial cytoreductive surgery. Cell viability in vitro, patient response to chemotherapy, and patient survival were correlated with these biomarkers. Results: Of the 25 patients evaluated for a correlation of LRP to 1-year recurrence, we correctly predicted the 1-year recurrence of 24 patients based solely on the presence of LRP in ascitic tumor cells (p = 0.01). P-gp and MRP2 were not expressed in malignant cells of ascites or omental metastases. Malignant cells from ascites had higher expression of LRP and were found to be more resistant to carboplatin treatment than cells from omental metastasis (p = 0.00375) by in vitro assay. LRP expression in the malignant cells of ascites correlated with carboplatin resistance (p = 0.001) by in vitro assay and recurrence at 1 year (p = 0.0125). Conclusions: LRP expression in malignant cells of ascites is a promising marker to predict response to first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. © 2013 Society of Surgical Oncology.