The past 3 decades have seen tremendous improvements in the survival of children diagnosed with cancer, with the 5-year survival rate approaching 80%. This improvement in survival has resulted in a growing population of childhood cancer survivors. Use of cancer therapy at an early age can produce complications that may not become apparent until years later. Approximately two thirds of the survivors of childhood cancer experience at least one late effect and about one fourth experience a late effect that is severe or life-threatening, although psychosocial issues in survivors and family members are often underestimated and may be more prevalent. Long-term complications in childhood cancer survivors, such as impairment in growth and development, neurocognitive dysfunction, cardiopulmonary compromise, endocrine dysfunction, renal impairment, gastrointestinal dysfunction, musculoskeletal sequelae, and subsequent malignancies, are related not only to the specific therapy used but also may be determined by individual host characteristics. We review the known late effects in survivors of childhood in order to suggest reasonable starting points for the evaluation of specific long-term problems in this unique but growing population. Copyright © 2005 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.