The bone mineral density of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is low compared to a healthy population. No studies have been conducted to investigate whether the presence of peritoneal dialysate affects dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results. We hypothesized that the presence of peritoneal dialysate would not affect the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mineral content (BMC) in the spine. Thirty patients on PD had DXA scans of the lumbar spine and hip completed before and after the drainage of peritoneal dialysate. A paired t-test was used to compare the difference in area, BMC, and BMD before and after drainage of dialysate. A significant difference was found in the BMC of the spine before and after the drainage of dialyzate. We recommend that peritoneal dialyzate be removed prior to scanning patients on PD and that densitometry technologists should be observant about the presence of peritoneal dialysate. © 2008 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry.