Endothelin (ET) 1 is a potent vasoactive peptide implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and renal disease. The aim of the current study was to test the hypotheses that ET-1 increases albumin permeability of glomeruli isolated from normal rats and that chronic ET-1 infusion will increase glomerular permeability and inflammation independent of blood pressure. Glomerular permeability to albumin was determined from the change in glomerular volume induced by exposing isolated glomeruli to oncotic gradients. Incubation of glomeruli taken from normal rats with ET-1 at a concentration that did not produce direct glomerular contraction (1 nmol/L) significantly increased glomerular permeability to albumin, reaching a maximum after 4 hours. Chronic ET-1 infusion for 2 weeks in Sprague-Dawley rats significantly increased glomerular permeability to albumin and nephrin excretion rate, effects that were attenuated in rats given an ETA receptor antagonist (ABT-627, 5 mg/kg per day). Urinary protein and albumin excretion and mean arterial pressure (telemetry) were not changed by ET-1 infusion. Acute incubation of glomeruli isolated from ET-1-infused rats with the selective ETA antagonist significantly reduced glomerular permeability to albumin, an effect not observed with acute treatment with a selective ETB antagonist. Chronic ET-1 infusion increased glomerular and plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and elevated the number of macrophages and lymphocytes in renal cortices (ED-1 and CD3-positive staining, respectively). These effects were all attenuated in rats given an ETA selective antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that ET-1 directly increases glomerular permeability to albumin and renal inflammation via ETA receptor activation independent of changes in arterial pressure. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.