A significant gap exists between evidence-based advances and real-world clinical practice in the diagnosis and prevention of osteoporosis. The goal of osteoporosis care is to prevent fractures and improve health-related quality of life, and ideally lower mortality. Despite recent advances in osteoporosis detection and treatment options, studies suggest underdiagnosis and undertreatment of osteoporosis, even among those who have already sustained fractures. The challenges in translating knowledge into practice are multifaceted, with efforts directed at the patient, provider, and health care system levels achieving variable success at the population level. Methods to improve quality of care in osteoporosis need to be multipronged, with emphasis on clinical process improvement and reliance on interdisciplinary teams. We review the growing literature on quality of care for osteoporosis. © Current Medicine Group, LLC 2009.