Simultaneous treatment of mouse cells with interferon and vitamin A (retinoic acid) resulted in an inhibition of interferon action. Increasing concentrations of calf serum decreased the inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on interferon action. Treatment of interferon with retinoic acid prior to the assay for interferon activity also resulted in a loss of interferon activity. Since the residual retinoic acid present after dilution of the interferon for assay was not sufficient to interfere with the assay, it is presumed that interferon and retinoic acid must interact in some fashion to inhibit interferon activity. Calf serum prevented the apparent interaction of retinoic acid and interferon. The loss of interferon activity which resulted from treatment of interferon with retinoic acid was dependent on temperature and time of incubation. Retinyl acetate (acetate ester of vitamin A) and retinal (vitamin A aldehyde) only slightly inhibited interferon activity, while retinoic acid (vitamin A acid) and retinol (vitamin A alcohol) were similarly effective at inhibiting interferon activity. Another fat soluble vitamin, vitamin K1, did not inhibit interferon activity.