The effect of exogenous cyclic AMP on mitogen-induced suppression and enhancement of the in vitro plaque-forming cell (PFC) response and on mitogen induction of immune interferon (also called type II) in cultures was examined. Mitogen induction of immune interferon was quantitatively associated with mitogen-induced suppressor activity, and cyclic AMP blocked both the suppressor activity and the production of immune interferon in mouse (C57B1/6) spleen cell cultures. The evidence is as follows: (a) The concentrations of dibutyryl cyclic AMP that blocked T-cell mitogen (staphylococcal enterotoxin A) suppressor activity were the same as those that blocked mitogen induction of immune interferon. (b) The blocking action of dibutyryl cAMP on both the suppressor and interferon effects of mitogen was a function of the time of dibutyryl cAMP addition to cultures relative to mitogen addition. (c) A dramatic immunoenhancing effect of mitogen occurred in the presence of dibutyryl cAMP under conditions that blocked production of immune interferon. Specifically, mitogen-induced helper cell function is dramatically enhanced in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, if the mitogen is added to cultures 24 to 48 hr after SRBC and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Dibutyryl cyclic GMP did not affect the mitogen- or cyclic AMP-induced effects under the conditions of our test system. Under the conditions described here, then, cyclic AMP appears to selectively block suppressor cell activity while allowing or aiding mitogen-induced helper cell activity. It is possible that the immune response is a reflection of the ratio of helper to suppressor activities in the system. © 1977.