Cells of the immune system are shown to produce peptide hormones whose production was once thought to be restricted to neuroendocrine tissue. Interestingly, in some cases, very specific stimuli elicit the production of one species of neuropeptide hormone. In other instances, it appears that some peptide hormones are constitutively produced. In either situation, the various immunocyte-derived hormones have biological activity in endocrinological assays. In the present report, a review of the various neuroendocrine hormones produced by cells of the immune system is discussed. © 1988.