We have previously shown that thyrotropin (TSH), which is produced by lymphocytes in response to the T cell mitogen staphylococcal enterotoxin A, enhances in vitro antibody production to T cell-dependent and independent Ag (SRBC and trinitrophenylated Brucella abortus [BA-TNP], respectively) as determined by a direct plaque-forming cell assay. As a result of these studies, experiments were designed to examine the possible immunoregulatory function of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the in vitro antibody response to the T cell-independent Ag BA-TNP. Our studies demonstrate that TRH at very low concentrations (pM) enhances the in vitro plaque-forming cell response to BA-TNP and also induces splenocyte production of TSH. Other hypothalamic-releasing factors were without effect. This enhancement effect by TRH was specifically blocked by rabbit antisera to the TSH-β subunit, whereas addition of normal rabbit sera had no effect. These data suggest that TRH specifically enhances the in vitro antibody response via production of immunoreactive TSH.