In the present study, we evaluated the subpopulation of lymphoid cells from normal and hypophysectomized rats producing GH and IGF-I in vitro. The data show that removal of the pituitary results in depression of GH production in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow and an increase in the peripheral blood leukocytes. The changes in the percentage of cells producing GH in hypophysectomized animals are not due to a single cell type but appears to influence the T-helper, T-cytotoxic, and B-cell subsets. Interestingly, no significant changes in the levels of GH RNA were detected between control and hypophysectomized animals after the in vitro culture. We also found that the increase in GH production in spleen cell cultures after mitogen stimulation could be accounted for by an increase in the percentage of T cells producing GH. Lastly, we demonstrated that the cells positive for GH production were also positive for IGF-I production. This later finding coupled with our previous results suggest that an autocrine regulatory circuit may be important for the production of leukocyte-derived irGH and irIGF-I within the immune system. © 1992.