Tumors such as ovarian, lung, and breast have been found to have a predilection for the pleura. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play an active role in pleural inflammation via release of cytokines. However, mechanisms whereby PMCs defend themselves against invading malignant cells are unknown. In the present study, we hypothesized that PMCs release the antiangiogenic factor endostatin and inhibit malignant cell invasion. We evaluated the endostatin levels in malignant (MAL) and congestive heart failure (CHF) pleural fluids (PF). Endostatin expression by PMC was also demonstrated by Western analysis and confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that CHF PF contained significantly higher levels of endostatin when compared with MAL PF. PMCs alone released a significantly greater amount of endostatin when compared with ovarian cancer cells (OCCs). When the PMC were cocultured with OCCs without contact, there was an increase in the endostatin production. However, when the PMCs were cocultured in direct contact with OCCs the endostatin levels significantly decreased. Endostatin production was upregulated in the presence of tumor cells but not when OCCs were adherent to underlying PMC monolayer. Immunofluorescent staining of PMCs for endostatin correlated with endostatin release. These findings suggest that PMCs play a key role in the antiangiogenesis process by producing endostatin in the pleural space, and thus preventing tumor spread and metastasis in the pleura.