We have shown in vitro AL-amyloid formation by human mesangial cells (HMCs). AL-amyloid formation may require lysosomal processing of the light chains (LCs) by HMCs for amyloidogenesis to occur. Chloroquine inhibits lysosomal activity. TGF-β mediates extracellular matrix formation in many glomerulopathies. Thrombospondin (TSP) has been proposed as a mediator of cell proliferation and a marker of early fibrosis. We investigated amyloid formation by HMCs exposed to AL-LCs in the absence of amyloid enhancing factor (AEF). The effects of TGF-β, TSP and chloroquine on in vitro amyloid formation were studied. HMCs were incubated with two AL-LCs, a light chain deposition disease (LCDD)-LC, or one of two tubulopathic LCs (T-LCs). Additional cells were treated with an AL-LC and chloroquine, TGF-β, or TSP. Amyloid formation was evaluated microscopically using hematoxylin and eosin, Congo red and Thioflavin-T stains, as well as ultrastructurally. Amyloid was formed only when HMCs were incubated with AL-LCs. Addition of TSP significantly enhanced amyloid formation. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β and chloroquine significantly attenuated amyloid formation. These findings show that some AL-LCs do not require AEF for amyloidogenesis to occur, and that chloroquine, TGF-β and sTSP modulate in vitro AL-amyloidosis.