Central venous stenosis is a frequent complication in hemodialysis patients, which can manifest clinically with ipsilateral upper extremity edema. When symptomatic, it is usually treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. When angioplasty is unsuccessful, stent deployment is a therapeutic option. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the primary and secondary patency of refractory central vein stenosis after treatment with a stent. Using a prospective vascular access database we retrospectively identified 23 patients presenting with unilateral upper extremity edema and a significant (> 50%) central vein stenosis, who underwent stent placement due to refractory stenosis following angioplasty. The primary (unassisted) central vein patency was determined from the initial intervention to the next angioplasty for recurrent central vein stenosis, and the secondary (assisted) patency from the initial intervention to permanent central vein occlusion. An immediate technical success was achieved in all patients after the stent deployment. However, the median primary central vein patency was only 138 days, with a 19% patency at 1 year. Recurrence of ipsilateral edema was always due to in-stent restenosis. The median secondary central vein patency was 1036 days, with a 64% patency at 1 year. In patients with symptomatic central vein stenosis that is refractory to percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, stent deployment provides short-term relief of the stenosis and ipsilateral upper extremity edema. However, long-term symptomatic relief can be achieved with multiple subsequent interventions in many patients.