Women with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) have increased rates of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence and CMV seroconversion. To characterize the association between genital tract CMV infection and BV, vaginal wash specimens from 52 women attending an STD clinic were analyzed. Significantly more women with BV shed CMV in the lower genital tract than did women without BV. In addition, most of the women who were shedding CMV were infected with >1 virus strain. These results suggest that local CMV replication and infection with multiple CMV strains is facilitated by the presence of BV. © 2005 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.