Fifteen patients with bacterial endocarditis were treated with vancomycin between 1967 and 1976. The indications for vancomycin therapy were penicillin-cephalosporin allergy in six patients, anti-biotic resistant bacteria in six, initial therapy in one and culture-negative endocarditis in two. The causative microorganisms were Staph. epidermidis (four patients), Staph. aureus (two patients), diphtherolds (four patients), viridans streptococci (two patients) and enterococcl (one patient). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancornycin for these organisms ranged from 0.8 to 3.1 μg/ml. The patients received vancomycin for two to 10 weeks (mean five weeks). Cure was achieved in 13 patients, including six with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). Two patients had a relapse of PVE and cultures of blood or heart valve were positive within two months of vancomycin therapy. Vancomycin serum levels did not exceed 50 μg/ml, and no serious drug toxicity was encountered in any patient. Three patients had minimal audiogram changes beyond the social hearing range. One patient had mild phlebitis and a rash, and one patient had a transient leukopenia. Vancomycin is an effective nontoxic antibiotic in patients with endocarditis when penicillin or cephalosporin therapy is not appropriate. © 1978.