The safety and efficacy of ofloxacin, 400 mg orally, were compared with those of amoxicillin, 3.0 g, plus probenicid, 1.0 g orally, as single-dose therapy in 201 heterosexual patients (101 men and 100 women) with uncomplicated gonococcal infection. Treatment groups were comparable in age, duration of symptoms, number of sexual partners within the previous month, and number of previous episodes of sexually transmitted diseases. The cure rate for men treated with ofloxacin was 98% (47 of 48), and that for women was 100% (52 of 52). Cure rates for both men and women treated with amoxicillin-probenecid were 96% (51 of 53 men; 46 of 48 women). All 13 patients with positive rectal cultures and 7 of 8 patients with positive pharyngeal cultures treated with ofloxacin were cured. Neither regimen reliably eradicated coexistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The MIC of ofloxacin for all but two of 198 pretreatment isolates was 0.3 μg/ml or less. The MIC of amoxicillin for 90% of isolates tested was 1.0 μg/ml. Single oral doses of ofloxacin and of amoxicillin plus probenecid were equally effective for treatment of urethral and cervical gonorrhea. Ofloxacin appears promising as treatment for rectal and pharyngeal infection, but studies with larger numbers of patients with rectal or pharyngeal infection or both are required for confirmation. Relative contraindications in children and possibly pregnant women plus the potential for single-step, high-level resistance may limit the usefulness of quinolone therapy for gonorrhea.