In a study of 1,486 men attending two sexually transmitted disease clinics, of whom 891 had no symptoms of urethritis, we compared an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Baxter-Bartels, formerly Northumbria AntigEnz) of urine sediment to urethral culture for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis prevalence by culture alone was 7.7% in asymptomatic men and 10.9% in symptomatic men. Discrepant results between EIA of urine and urethral culture were evaluated by direct fluorescent-antibody staining (DFA) for elementary bodies in urine sediment or in culture transport media. When chlamydial infection was defined as either a positive urethral culture or positive EIA confirmed by DFA, chlamydia prevalence increased to 8.9% in asymptomatic men and 11.6% in symptomatic men. The urine EIA sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for chlamydia detection in asymptomatic men were 84.8, 99.3, 91.8, and 98.5%, respectively, with nearly identical results for symptomatic men. The sensitivities of urethral culture alone compared with the combination of urethral culture and urine EIA (with DFA confirmation) were 87.3 and 94.3% for asymptomatic and symptomatic men, respectively. The present EIA of urine sediment is both highly sensitive and specific for the detection of C. trachomatis in asymptomatic men, thus providing a noninvasive screening method for chlamydia infection in asymptomatic men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.