The incidence of invasive aspergillosis was estimated among 4621 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and 4110 solid organ transplants (SOT) at 19 sites dispersed throughout the United States, during a 22 month period from 1 March 2001 through 31 December 2002. Cases were identified using the consensus definitions for proven and probable infection developed by the Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The cumulative incidence (CI) of aspergillosis was calculated for the first episode of the infection that occurred within the specified time period after transplantation. To obtain an aggregate CI for each type of transplant, data from participating sites were weighted according to the proportion of transplants followed-up for specified time periods (four and 12 months for HSCT; six and 12 months for SOT). The aggregate CI of aspergillosis at 12 months was 0.5% after autologous HSCT, 2.3% after allogeneic HSCT from an HLA-matched related donor, 3.2% after transplantation from an HLA-mismatched related donor, and 3.9% after transplantation from an unrelated donor. The aggregate CI at 12 months was similar following myeloablative or non-myeloablative conditioning before allogeneic HSCT (3.1 vs. 3.3%). After HSCT, mortality at 3 months following diagnosis of aspergillosis ranged from 53.8% of autologous transplants to 84.6% of unrelated-donor transplants. The aggregate CI of aspergillosis at 12 months was 2.4% after lung transplantation, 0.8% after heart transplantation, 0.3% after liver transplantation, and 0.1% after kidney transplantation. After SOT, mortality at three months after diagnosis of aspergillosis ranged from 20% for lung transplants to 66.7% for heart and kidney transplants. The Aspergillus spp. associated with infections after HSCT included A. fumigatus (56%), A. flavus (18.7%), A. terreus (16%), A. niger (8%), and A. versicolor (1.3%). Those associated with infections after SOT included A. fumigatus (76.4%), A. flavus (11.8%), and A. terreus (11.8%). In conclusion, we found that invasive aspergillosis is an uncommon complication of HSCT and SOT, but one that continues to be associated with poor outcomes. Our CI figures are lower compared to those of previous reports. The reasons for this are unclear, but may be related to changes in transplantation practices, diagnostic methods, and supportive care. © 2005 ISHAM.