Invasive candidiasis remains an important nosocomial infection that continues to present major diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to the clinician. Changes in the epidemiology of this disorder have occurred for many reasons, and include especially the extensive use of prophylactic antifungal agents, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and medical devices (eg, chronic indwelling intravascular catheters). The diagnosis of IC remains elusive in many patients, and there is a critical need for improved diagnostics that will provide clinicians the opportunity to intervene earlier in the course of disease. Newer antifungal agents offer promise in the treatment of candidemia and other forms of IC, but the optimal use of these agents, particularly in the approach to non-albicans Candida infections, needs to be explored in more detail. Furthermore, despite an overwhelming amount of data concerning risk factors and excess mortality associated with the development of IC, there is no consistent approach to treatment and primary prevention among individuals who are deemed to be at highest risk for this complication. Research that focuses on these important clinical areas could provide valuable insights into the diagnosis and management of this common and evolving infection. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.