© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Sporotrichosis is an uncommon subcutaneous mycosis found throughout the world. Certain tropical and subtropical areas, in particular South America, have regions of hyperendemic disease. Here, we report on the developing genetic diversity of the genus as well as the epidemiology, from the beginnings of the French and South African epidemics through the modern day outbreak in Brazil. The ongoing Brazilian epidemic has led to the discovery of a new species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and there have been several other clinical and environmental species identified throughout the globe as well. It remains to be seen, however, just what impact this species diversity has on clinical disease.