© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. All rights reserved. Organ transplantation is an effective life-sparing modality for thousands of patients with organ failure syndromes. In spite of important advances in surgical technique and immunosuppressive regimens that have made organ transplantation a safer procedure today when compared to previous decades, there remain substantial risks of infection and other complications related to these procedures. Among the infectious complications of organ transplantation, none is associated with a greater impact on morbidity and mortality than invasive fungal infections (IFI) [1-5]. Fungal infections in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) vary in frequency, etiology, and pathogenesis according to the type of organ transplant procedure. Variations in immunosuppressive regimens, surgical technique, infection control, and exposure history further complicate evaluation of these patients. Moreover, the incidence of IFIs among this group of patients varies considerably from center to center .