© Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015. Following the release of the 2010 National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued core clinical indicators for measuring health outcomes in HIV-positive persons. As early retention in HIV primary care is associated with improved long-term health outcomes, we employed IOM indicators as a guide to examine a cohort of persons initiating HIV outpatient medical care at a university-affiliated HIV clinic in the Southern United States (January 2007-July 2012). Using indicators for visit attendance, CD4 and viral load laboratory testing frequency, and antiretroviral therapy initiation, we evaluated factors associated with achieving IOM core indicators among care- and treatment-naïve patients during the first year of HIV care. Of 448 patients (mean age=35 years, 35.7% white, 79.0% male, 58.4% education beyond high school, 35.9% monthly income>$1,000 US, 47.3% uninsured), 84.6% achieved at least four of five IOM indicators. In multivariable analyses, persons with monthly income>$1,000 (ORadj.=3.71; 95% CI: 1.68-8.19; p=0.001) and depressive symptoms (ORadj.=2.13; 95% CI: 1.02-4.45; p=0.04) were significantly more likely to achieve at least four of the five core indicators, while patients with anxiety symptoms were significantly less likely to achieve these indicators (ORadj.=0.50; 95% CI: 0.26-0.97; p=0.04). Age, sex, race, education, insurance status, transportation barriers, alcohol use, and HIV status disclosure to family were not associated with achieving core indicators. Evaluating and addressing financial barriers and anxiety symptoms during the first year of HIV outpatient care may improve individual health outcomes and subsequent achievement of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.