Nutrigenomics refers to the complex effects of the nutritional environment on the genome, epigenome, and proteome of an organism. The diverse tissue-and organ-specific effects of diet include gene expression patterns, organization of the chromatin, and protein post-translational modifications. Long-term effects of diet range from obesity and associated diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease to increased or decreased longevity. Furthermore, the diet of the mother can potentially have long-term health impacts on the children, possibly through inherited diet-induced chromatin alterations. Drosophila is a unique and ideal model organism for conducting nutrigenomics research for numerous reasons. Drosophila, yeast, and Caenorhabditis elegans all have sophisticated genetics as well as sequenced genomes, and researchers working with all three organisms have made valuable discoveries in nutrigenomics. However, unlike yeast and C. elegans, Drosophila has adipose-like tissues and a lipid transport system, making it a closer model to humans. This review summarizes what has already been learned in Drosophila nutrigenomics (with an emphasis on lipids and sterols), critically evaluates the data, and discusses fruitful areas for future research. Copyright © 2005 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.