The course of HIV infection has been dramatically transformed by the success of antiretroviral therapy from a universally fatal infection to a manageable chronic disease. With these advances in HIV disease management, age-related comorbidities, including metabolic bone disease, have become more prominent in the routine care of persons living with HIV infection. Recent data have highlighted the role of HIV infection, initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and hepatitis C virus coinfection in bone mineral density loss and fracture incidence. Additionally, the underlying mechanism for the development of metabolic bone disease in the setting of HIV infection has received considerable attention. This review highlights recently published and presented data and synthesizes the current state of the field. These data highlight the need for proactive prevention for fragility fractures. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.