Proper nutrition therapy plays a crucial role in both the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Calcium and vitamin D from dietary or supplement sources have historically been the major therapeutic focus of both practitioners who treat osteoporosis and patients who seek nutrition advice for osteoporosis. Current research continues to expand understanding of these nutrients while examining the roles of other nutrients in bone health. In some cases, research has examined specific foods or beverages and their effect on bone density, broadening understanding of eating patterns and bone health. This review focuses on recent nutrition-related findings that will help physicians, registered dietitians, nurses, and other health care professionals advise patients better on dietary changes to improve bone mineral density and potentially lower fracture risk. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.