To begin to define the behaviors that influence gonorrhea acquisition, a case-series of patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic was surveyed. Although gonorrhea rates were similar, men and women differed in sexual behaviors predictive of infection. Men with a new or casual partner were more likely to have gonorrhea than men with no such partners (adjusted odds ratio = 2.7); this finding did not hold true for women. Condom use in the previous month reduced the chances of gonorrhea acquisition for both men and women. More than 33% continued to engage in sexual activity after onset of symptoms or knowledge of sexually transmitted disease exposure. Individuals with repeated episodes of gonorrhea exhibited an array of risk-taking behaviors, such as intravenous drug use and casual sex partners. These data suggest the complex nature of the behaviors and sexual contexts within which gonorrhea acquisition occurs. © 1990 by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved.