Fungal brain abscess is an unusual but serious complication associated with solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To examine the epidemiology and clinical features of fungal brain abscess in transplant recipients, we reviewed retrospectively all cases of fungal brain abscess diagnosed during a 3-yr period among 1620 adult patients who underwent allogeneic or autologous stem cell, liver, heart, lung, or renal transplantation at one institution. Seventeen cases of fungal brain abscess were identified and occurred a median of 140 d post-transplantation. Fungal brain abscess was more common among allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (p < 0.01). Aspergillus species were most commonly isolated, but unusual, opportunistic molds were also identified. Altered mental status was present in 65% of patients, and multiple brain lesions were commonly seen on imaging studies. Although fungal brain abscess is an uncommon disease in this population, outcome was poor, suggesting that early recognition of this disease might be helpful.