To assess the value of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as a predictor of antiretroviral treatment response in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people, drug susceptibility testing was performed retrospectively on plasma samples collected at baseline in a cohort of 86 antiretroviral-experienced, HIV-infected people experiencing treatment failure and initiating a new antiretroviral treatment regimen. Two separate criteria for reduced drug susceptibility were evaluated. In multivariate analyses, phenotypic susceptibility was an independent predictor of time to treatment failure (adjusted hazards ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.90; and adjusted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.95, with reduced drug susceptibility cutoffs defined as 4.0-fold and 2.5-fold higher than reference virus IC50 values, respectively). Previous protease inhibitor experience was also a significant independent predictor. Notably, drug susceptibility predicted on the basis of treatment history alone was not predictive of time to treatment failure. In this cohort, phenotypic testing results enhanced the ability to predict sustained long-term suppression of virus load.