As a patient approaches death, family members often are asked about their loved one's preferences regarding treatment at the end of life. Advance care directives may provide information for families and surrogate decision makers; however, less than one-third of Americans have completed such documents. As the U.S. population continues to age, many surrogate decision makers likely will rely on other means to discern or interpret a loved one's preferences. While many surrogates indicate that they have some knowledge of their loved one's preferences, how surrogates obtain such knowledge is not well understood. Additionally, although research.