This randomized clinical trial examined the feasibility of low-fat dietary interventions among postmenopausal women of diverse backgrounds. During 1992-1994, 2,208 women aged 50-79 years, 28% of whom were black and 16% Hispanic, enrolled at clinics in Atlanta, Georgia, Birmingham, Alabama, and Miami, Florida. Intervention/support groups met periodically with a nutritionist to reduce fat intake to 20% of energy and to make other diet modifications. At 6 months postrandomization, the intervention group reduced fat intake from 39.7% of energy at baseline to 26.4%, a reduction of 13.3% of energy, compared with 2.3% among controls. Saturated fatty acid and cholesterol intakes were reduced, but intakes of fruits and vegetables, but not grain products, increased. Similar effects were observed at 12 and 18 months. Black and non-Hispanic white women had similar levels of reduction in fat, but the decrease in Hispanic women was less. Changes did not vary significantly by education. While bias in self-reported intakes may have resulted in somewhat overestimated changes in fat intake, the reported reduction was similar to the approximately 10% of energy decrease found in most trials and suggests that large changes in fat consumption can be attained in diverse study populations and in many subgroups.