© 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Introduction Few studies have examined the longitudinal associations of fitness or changes in fitness on the risk of developing dyslipidemias. This study examined the associations of (1) baseline fitness with 25-year dyslipidemia incidence and (2) 20-year fitness change on dyslipidemia development in middle age in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). Methods Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to test the association of baseline fitness (1985-1986) with dyslipidemia incidence over 25 years (2010-2011) in CARDIA (N=4,898). Modified Poisson regression models were used to examine the association of 20-year change in fitness with dyslipidemia incidence between Years 20 and 25 (n=2,487). Data were analyzed in June 2014 and February 2015. Results In adjusted models, the risk of incident low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); high triglycerides; and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly lower, by 9%, 16%, and 14%, respectively, for each 2.0-minute increase in baseline treadmill endurance. After additional adjustment for baseline trait level, the associations remained significant for incident high triglycerides and high LDL-C in the total population and for incident high triglycerides in both men and women. In race-stratified models, these associations appeared to be limited to whites. In adjusted models, change in fitness did not predict 5-year incidence of dyslipidemias, whereas baseline fitness significantly predicted 5-year incidence of high triglycerides. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood as a risk factor for developing dyslipidemias, particularly high triglycerides, during the transition to middle age.