© 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Background and aims: Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is located on both sides of the pericardium. We tested whether PAT was associated with prevalent diabetes at the year 25 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods and results: The CARDIA Year 25 exam (2010-2011) included complete data for all covariates on 3107 participants. Prevalent diabetes (n = 436) was defined as high fasting (≥126 mg/dl) or 2-h postload glucose (≥200 mg/dl) or HbA1c (≥6.5%) or use of diabetes medications. Volume of PAT was measured from computed tomographic scans. Logistic regression was performed to examine the relationship between quartiles of PAT and diabetes. In regression models adjusted for field center, sex, race, age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, log triglycerides, and treatment with blood pressure and cholesterol lowering medication, PAT volume in the 4th quartile was significantly associated with diabetes status after adjustment for BMI (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.66, 3.98) or visceral adipose tissue (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.32, 3.29). PAT volume in the 2nd and 3rd quartiles was not significantly associated with diabetes status relative to the first quartile. Conclusions: Metabolically active pericardial adipose tissue is associated with prevalent diabetes only at higher volumes independent of overall obesity.