Small noncoding microRNAs have emerged as important regulators of cellular processes, but their role in pancreatic beta cells has only started to be elucidated. Loss of pancreatic beta cells is a key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes, and we have demonstrated that beta cell expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is increased in diabetes and causes beta cell apoptosis, whereas TXNIP deficiency is protective against diabetes. Recently, we found that TXNIP also impairs beta cell function by inducing microRNA (miR)-204. Interestingly, using INS-1 beta cells and primary islets, we have now discovered that expression of another microRNA, miR-200, is induced by TXNIP and by diabetes. Furthermore, we found that miR-200 targeted and decreased Zeb1 (zinc finger E-box-binding homeo box 1) and promoted beta cell apoptosis as measured by cleaved caspase-3 levels, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, and TUNEL. In addition, Zeb1 knockdown mimicked the miR-200 effects on beta cell apoptosis, suggesting that Zeb1 plays an important role in mediating miR-200 effects. Moreover, miR-200 increased beta cell expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, consistent with inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a process thought to be involved in beta cell expansion. Thus, we have identified a novel TXNIP/miR-200/Zeb1/E-cadherin signaling pathway that, for the first time, links miR-200 to beta cell apoptosis and diabetes and also beta cell TXNIP to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, our results shed new light on the regulation and function of miR-200 in beta cells and show that TXNIPinduced microRNAs control various processes of beta cell biology.