Effects of Losartan or Atenolol in Hypertensive Patients without Clinically Evident Vascular Disease: A Substudy of the LIFE Randomized Trial

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are reduced by treatment with the angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist losartan compared with conventional treatment with the β-blocker atenolol in patients with hypertension and electrocardiogram-defined left ventricular hypertrophy, many of whom had known vascular disease. Objective: To determine whether losartan reduces cardiovascular event rates in lower-risk hypertensive patients without clinically evident vascular disease. Design: Subgroup analysis of a randomized trial. Setting: The Losartan Intervention for Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Patients: 6886 men and women (57% women) 55 to 80 years of age (average, 66 years) with essential hypertension (sitting blood pressure, 160 to 200/95 to 115 mm Hg [average, 174/98 mm Hg]) and electrocardiogram-defined left ventricular hypertrophy who did not have clinically evident vascular disease. Intervention: Patients were randomly assigned to once-daily double-blind treatment with losartan or atenolol. Measurements: An end point committee ascertained end points (cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction). Results: Blood pressure was reduced similarly by losartan and atenolol. The primary composite end point occurred in 282 losartan-treated patients (17.5 per 1000 patient-years) and 355 atenolol-treated patients (21.8 per 1000 patient-years; relative risk, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.95]; P = 0.008). Cardiovascular death occurred in 103 losartan-treated patients and 132 atenolol-treated patients (relative risk, 0. 80 [CI, 0.62 to 1.04]; P = 0.092), stroke (nonfatal and fatal) occurred in 125 losartan-treated patients and 193 atenolol-treated patients (relative risk, 0. 66 [CI, 0.53 to 0.82]; P < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (nonfatal and fatal) occurred in 110 losartan-treated patients and 100 atenolol-treated patients (relative risk, 1.14 [CI, 0.87 to 1.49]; P > 0.2). New-onset diabetes occurred less often in patients treated with losartan (n = 173) than in patients treated with atenolol (n = 254) (relative risk, 0.69 [CI, 0.57 to 0.84]; P < 0.001). Benefits of losartan treatment were numerically smaller, but not significantly so, in patients with pre-existing vascular disease. Conclusion: In hypertensive patients without clinically evident vascular disease, losartan was more effective than atenolol in preventing cardiovascular morbidity and death, predominantly stroke, independent of blood pressure reduction.
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  • ACP journal club  Journal
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    Author List

  • Devereux RB; Dahlöf B; Kjeldsen SE; Julius S; Aurup P; Beevers G; Edelman JM; De Faire U; Fyhrquist F; Helle Berg S
  • Volume

  • 139
  • Issue

  • 3