Estrogen and mechanisms of vascular protection

Academic Article


  • Estrogen has antiinflammatory and vasoprotective effects when administered to young women or experimental animals that appear to be converted to proinflammatory and vasotoxic effects in older subjects, particularly those that have been hormone free for long periods. Clinical studies have raised many important questions about the vascular effects of estrogen that cannot easily be answered in human subjects. Here we review cellular/molecular mechanisms by which estrogen modulates injury-induced inflammation, growth factor expression, and oxidative stress in arteries and isolated vascular smooth muscle cells, with emphasis on the role of estrogen receptors and the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) signaling pathway, as well as evidence that these protective mechanisms are lost in aging subjects. © 2009 American Heart Association, Inc.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Xing D; Nozell S; Chen YF; Hage F; Oparil S
  • Start Page

  • 289
  • End Page

  • 295
  • Volume

  • 29
  • Issue

  • 3