Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of end-organ injury in hypertension via its diverse hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic effects. Erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogen homolog-1 (ETS-1) is an important transcription factor recently recognized as an important mediator of cell proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that ETS-1 is a common mediator of the renal proinflammatory and profibrotic effects of Ang II. C57BL6 mice (n=6 per group) were infused with vehicle (control), Ang II (1.4 mg/kg per day), Ang II and an ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide (10 mg/kg per day), or Ang II and an ETS-1 mutant peptide (10 mg/kg per day) via osmotic minipump for 2 or 4 weeks. The infusion of Ang II resulted in significant increases in blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy, which were not modified by ETS-1 blockade. The administration of ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide significantly attenuated Ang II-induced renal injury as assessed by urinary protein excretion, mesangial matrix expansion, and cell proliferation. Furthermore, ETS-1 dominant-negative peptide but not ETS-1 mutant peptide significantly reduced Ang II-mediated upregulation of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, ETS-1 blockade reduced several proinflammatory effects of Ang II, including macrophage infiltration, nitrotyrosine expression, and NOX4 mRNA expression. Our studies suggest that ETS-1 is a common mediator of the proinflammatory and profibrotic effects of Ang II-induced hypertensive renal damage and may result in the development of novel strategies in the treatment and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertension. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.