The aim of this analysis was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with dyslipidemia and/or hypertension receiving phentermine (PHEN) and topiramate extended-release (TPM ER). In the 56-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter CONQUER trial, PHEN/TPM ER demonstrated significant weight loss compared with placebo in overweight or obese participants with ≥2 weight-related co-morbidities. Participants with body mass indexes of 27 to 45 kg/m2 were randomized to placebo, PHEN 7.5 mg/TPM ER 46 mg, or PHEN 15 mg/TPM ER 92 mg; participants also received lifestyle modification counseling. Primary end points were percentage weight loss and the proportion of participants achieving ≥5% weight loss. Additional end points were changes in lipid variables in the dyslipidemia population and blood pressure in the hypertensive population, stratified by treatment and magnitude of weight loss. PHEN/TPM ER produced significantly greater dose-related mean percentage weight loss compared with placebo in the subgroups of participants with dyslipidemia and those with hypertension. Regardless of treatment group assignment, participants with dyslipidemia who lost ≥5% of their baseline weight experienced significantly greater reductions in triglycerides (-14.5% to -39.8%), and in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.4% to -14.8%) than those losing <5% of their weight (p <0.05). Similarly, participants with hypertension at baseline showed reduced systolic blood pressure by -7.5 to -11.8 mm Hg (p <0.001 vs those with <5% weight loss). In conclusion, the dose-related weight loss induced by PHEN/TPM ER treatment was accompanied by significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors in participants who had dyslipidemia or hypertension at baseline, suggesting that facilitating weight loss by augmenting lifestyle changes with pharmacotherapies may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease in obese and overweight patients with co-morbidities. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.