We studied 13 patients with valvular vegetations who underwent intraoperative live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) and real time two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2DTEE). The 3DTEE provided incremental value on top of 2DTEE in its ability to accurately identify and localize vegetations and in identifying complications of infective endocarditis such as abscesses, perforations, and ruptured chordae. By using 3DTEE, we were able to measure vegetation volumes, perforation areas, and estimate the area of the valve that is involved in the infective process. These preliminary results suggest the superiority of 3DTEE over 2DTEE in the evaluation of valvular vegetations and provide incremental knowledge that is useful to the cardiac surgeons. © 2009, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.