Left bundle branch block (LBBB) causes an abnormal pattern of cardiac activation and affects regional myocardial function. Although recognition of LBBB on the surface electrocardiogram is straightforward, dissecting its effect on patient treatment and outcome can be more challenging. The altered pattern of cardiac activation in LBBB causes electrical and mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony, influences ischemia detection on the surface electrocardiogram, and affects stress testing and imaging modalities dependent on wall motion and thickening. Restoration of synchrony by biventricular pacing can improve symptoms and longevity in carefully selected patients. The diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications of LBBB across this spectrum are discussed in this review. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.