Previous studies suggest that high-density lipoprotein and apoAI inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that the apoAI mimetic peptide L-4F exerts antiinflammatory effects similar to apoAI. Pretreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with LPS induced the adhesion of THP-1 monocytes. Incubation of cells with LPS and L-4F (1 to 50 μg/mL) reduced THP-1 adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner. This response was associated with a significant reduction in the synthesis of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. L-4F reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression induced by LPS or lipid A, whereas a control peptide (Sc-4F) showed no effect. In contrast to LPS treatment, L-4F did not inhibit IL-1β- or tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on LPS induction of inflammatory markers was associated with reduced binding of LPS to its plasma carrier molecule, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and decreased binding of LPS to HUVEC monolayers. LPS and L-4F in HUVEC culture medium were fractionated by fast protein liquid chromatography and were localized to the same fractions, suggesting a physical interaction between these molecules. Proinflammatory responses to LPS are associated with the binding of lipid A to cell surface receptors. The current studies demonstrate that L-4F reduces the expression of inflammatory markers induced by LPS and lipid A and suggest that apoAI peptide mimetics may be useful in the treatment of inflammation associated with endotoxemia. © 2005 American Heart Association, Inc.