Novel approaches to treatment of malignant glioma, the most frequently occurring primary brain tumor, have included the use of a wide range of oncolytic viral vectors. These vectors, either naturally tumor-selective, or engineered as such, have shown promise in the handful of phase I and phase II clinical trials conducted in recent years. The strategies developed for each of the different viruses currently being studied and the history of their development are summarized here. In addition, the results of clinical trials in patients and their implication for future trials are also discussed. © 2009 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.