Risk factors for early, cumulative, and fatal infections after heart transplantation: A multiinstitutional study

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Background and Methods: By multivariable analysis, risk factors were identified for initial infection of any type, cumulative infections during the first 6 months and fatal infection among 2210 heart transplant recipients at 30 institutions. Results and Conclusions: Of the 1218 infections in 695 patients, bacterial infections were most frequent (47%), followed by viral (42%), fungal (8%), and protozoal (4%). Risk factors for earlier infection included older recipient age (p < 0.0001), ventilator support at time of transplant (p < 0.0001), ventricular assist device at time of transplant (p = 0.02), OKT3 induction therapy (p < 0.0001), donor black race (p = 0.0007), and positive donor cytomegalovirus serology (for cytomegalovirus infection) (p = 0.0007). Cumulative infections during the first 6 months were increased by older recipient age (p < 0.0001), ventilator support at transplant (p = 0.0004), ventricular assist at transplant (p = 0.009), Black donor (p = 0.03), female donor (p = 0.03), and OKT3 induction therapy (p = 0.005). The actuarial freedom from fatal infection was 96% at 1 year and 95% at 3 years. Risk factors for death from infection included very old (p = 0.002) and very young recipients (p = 0.004), ventilator support at time of transplant (p = 0.004), older donor (p < 0.0001), and longer donor ischemic time (p = 0.02). The risk of death from infection within the first 3 months exceeded 20% among older recipients (> 55 years) on ventilator support at time of transplantation who received an older (>50 years) donor heart.
  • Authors

    Published In

    Pubmed Id

  • 9374230
  • Author List

  • Smart FW; Naftel DC; Costanzo MR; Levine TB; Pelletier GB; Yancy CW; Hobbs RE; Kirklin JK; Bourge RC
  • Start Page

  • 329
  • End Page

  • 341
  • Volume

  • 15
  • Issue

  • 4