Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF/VPF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen that is structurally related to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor induces angiogenesis in vivo and may play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis, the authors demonstrated the presence of VEGF/VPF protein in surgical specimens of glioblastoma multiforme and cultured glioma cells. By means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of cell supernatants, the authors showed that VEGF/VPF is variably secreted by all nine cultured human malignant glioma cell lines (CH-235MG, D-37MG, D-54MG, D-65MG, U-87MG, U- 105MG, U-138MG, U-251MG, U-373MG) and by a single meningioma cell line (CH- 157MN). An immunocytochemical survey of these cell lines revealed a cytoplasmic and cell-surface distribution of VEGF/VPE. In the U-105MG glioma cell line, VEGF/VPF secretion was induced with physiological concentrations of epidermal growth factor, PDGF-BB, or basic fibroblast growth factor, but not with PDGF-AA. Moreover, it was observed that activation of convergent growth factor signaling pathways led to increased glioma VEGF secretion. Similar results were obtained using these growth factor combinations in the D-54MG glioma cell line. The data obtained suggest a potential role for VEGF/VPF in tumor hypervascularity and peritumoral edema. These observations may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies.