Anaplastic gliomas are infiltrative tumors, and their ability to migrate through normal brain contributes to their highly malignant behavior. Invasion of brain requires cell motility, which in turn depends on the activity of the cytoskeleton. A cytoskeletal component central to this process is myosin II, the cytoplasmic analogue of smooth and skeletal muscle myosin. Myosin II activity is regulated by file enzyme myosin light chain kinase, which activates myosin II by phosphorylating it on its regulatory light chain. We have investigated the role of myosin II in glioma motility and invasiveness by examining the effects of two inhibitors of myosin light chain kinase, ML7 and KT5926. Both drugs are potent inhibitors of both glioma motility, as measured by a scrape motility assay, and an in vitro haptotaxis assay. The inhibition of in vitro haptotaxis follows the dose-response relationship expected for competitive inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by these drugs and is seen at drug concentrations that are nontoxic. These results highlight the important role that myosin II contributes to glioma invasiveness and suggest that it may serve as a target in future strategies at blocking invasion by these tumors.