Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, have no known etiology, and are generally rapidly fatal despite current therapies. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is β-herpesvirus trophic for glial cells that persistently infects 50-90% of the adult human population. HCMV can be reactivated under conditions of inflammation and immunosuppression, and HCMV gene products can dysregulate multiple cellular pathways involved in oncogenesis. Here we show that a high percentage of malignant gliomas are infected by HCMV and multiple HCMV gene products are expressed in these tumors. These data are the first to show an association between HCMV and malignant gliomas and suggest that HCMV may play an active role in glioma pathogenesis.