© 2016 American Society for Nutrition. S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) has previously been identified as a type 2 diabetes (T2D) gene. However, this finding requires independent validation and more in-depth analyses in other populations and ancestries. Objectives: We aimed to replicate the associations between an S100A9 variant and insulin resistance and T2D and to initiate an investigation of potential interactions with the habitual diet in several independent populations. Design: We investigated the association of the S100A9 variant rs3014866 with insulin resistance and T2D risk and its interactions with diet in 3 diverse populations as follows: the CORDIOPREV (Coronary Diet Intervention with Olive Oil and Cardiovascular Prevention; n = 711), which consisted of Spanish white adults; the GOLDN (Genetics of Lipids Lowering Drugs and Diet Network; n = 818), which involved North American non-Hispanic white adults; and Hispanic adults who participated in the BPRHS (Boston Puerto Rican Health Study; n = 1155). Results: Meta-analysis indicated that T carriers presented a lower risk of T2D than CC carriers (pooled OR: 0.714; 95% CI: 0.584, 0.845; P = 0.002). In all 3 populations (CORDIOPREV, GOLDN, and BPRHS), we showed a significant interaction between the rs3014866 single nucleotide polymorphism and dietary SFA:carbohydrate ratio intake for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.028, P = 0.017, and P = 0.026, respectively). CC carriers had a significantly higher HOMA-IR only when SFA:carbohydrate intake was high (P = 0.045 for the CORDIOPREV, P = 0.033 for the GOLDN, and P = 0.046 for the BPRHS) but not when SFA:carbohydrate ratio intake was low. Conclusions: The minor allele (T) of the S100A9 variant rs3014866 is associated with lower T2D risk in 3 populations of different ancestries. Note that individuals with the high-risk CC genotype may be more likely to benefit from a low SFA:carbohydrate ratio intake to improve insulin resistance as evaluated with the use of the HOMA-IR.