Reproductive rights are rooted in basic human rights and are important to health, particularly for women. They came to be more clearly articulated in the late twentieth century, with sexual rights recently added to the mix. However, reproductive rights remain subject to powerful social, political, and other determinants. Significant gains have been made in implementing the reproductive health and rights agenda, but aggregate gains mask glaring inequalities that entail much avoidable human suffering and lost opportunities for realizing better individual well-being and societal development. Achieving further progress requires continued advocacy for reproductive and sexual rights and sound public health programming.