© 2015 by Begell House, Inc. Pathogenic CD4+ T cells and myeloid cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. These immune cells secrete aberrantly high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines that pathogenically bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems and damage neurons and oligodendrocytes. These cytokines include interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-12, IL-21, IL-23, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). It is, therefore, not surprising that both the dysregulated expression of these cytokines and the subsequent activation of their downstream signaling cascades is a common feature in MS/EAE. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway is utilized by numerous cytokines for signal transduction and is essential for the development and regulation of immune responses. Unbridled activation of the JAK/STAT pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in our understanding of the involvement of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE, with a particular focus on therapeutic approaches to target the JAK/STAT pathway.