We review recently published literature on behavioral aspects of asthma, including program descriptions, reviews, and original research reports. Most of the literature on behavioral aspects of asthma has been in the area of self-management, including education, medication use, and peak flow monitoring. Recent studies of these factors have shown promising trends in reducing morbidity and in improving health care utilization outcomes. Medication adherence continues to be problematic, and its complexity is increased when comparing inhaled with oral medications and bronchodilators with anti-inflammatory agents. Psychobiologic factors that have been recently studied include perceptions of airway changes and the role of emotional responses in asthma self-management. Because the behavioral aspects of asthma play such a significant role in asthma treatment, further study is needed to determine how changes in patient behavior can improve patient quality of life.