Objectives. We examined the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention among African American female adolescents reporting a history of gender-based violence. Methods. In this analysis of a subgroup of participants involved in a randomized controlled trial, consistent condom use, psychosocial mediators associated with HIV-preventive behaviors, and presence of sexually transmitted diseases were assessed at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The intervention emphasized ethnic and gender pride, HIV knowledge, condom attitudes, healthy relationships, communication, and condom use skills. Results. Relative to the comparison condition, participants randomized to the intervention reported using condoms more consistently, had fewer episodes of unprotected vaginal sex, engaged in a greater proportion of protected intercourse acts, were more likely to have used a condom during their most recent intercourse, were less likely to have a new sexual partner, were less likely to have a sexually transmitted disease, and demonstrated more proficient condom skills. Conclusions. Given the substantial prevalence of gender-based violence among female adolescents and the associations observed between gender-based violence, HIV risk, and HIV infection, it is essential that HIV interventions involving young women address partner violence.